ECO/FAO Project Document
on Technical Cooperation
Countries/Organization: Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)
and its Member Countries: Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Islamic Republic of Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
Project Tile: Support to Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) for the Preparation of a Regional Programme for Food Security
Project Symbol: TCP/INT/2902 (F)
Starting Date: March 2003
Completion Date: February 2004
Counterpart Institution Responsible
for Project Implementation: ECO Secretariat
FAO Contribution: US$ 327 000
I. BACKGROUND AND JUSTIFICATIONS
a. Socio-Economic Background of the Region
The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), an inter-governmental organization comprising Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Islamic Republic of Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, have identified regional food security as one of the primary concerns. The ten ECO member states now cover a region of 7.9 million square kilometers inhibited by more than 363 million people of common cultural heritage in 2001, growing at an average annual rate of 1.72 percent. There are significant variations among the ECO countries and within each country in terms of food security and capacity to meet the increasing demand for food and agriculture products. Six of the ECO member countries are considered as low-income food deficit countries (LIFDCs) namely: Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.
The main objectives of ECO are: sustainable economic development of Member States; progressive removal of trade barriers and promotion of intra-regional trade; greater role of ECO region in the growth of world trade; gradual integration of the economies of the Member States with the world economy; development of transport and communications infrastructure linking the Member States with each other and with the outside world; economic liberalization and privatization; mobilization and utilization of ECO region's material resources; effective utilization of the agricultural and industrial potentials of ECO region; regional cooperation for drug abuse control, ecological and environmental protection and strengthening of historical and cultural ties among the peoples of the ECO region; and mutually beneficial cooperation with regional and international organizations.
Trade, being an important instrument for promoting regional cooperation, remains a priority area in ECO's scheme of work. The low quantum of intra-regional trade shows that there exists a big potential for diverting trade from non-regional sources to sources within the region. The promotion of mutual trade helps evolve complementary in the economies of the Member States and paves the way for pooling of resources to establish infrastructural links and industrial projects.
In pursuance of Article-IX of the Treaty of Izmir, ECO Secretariat shall initiate, coordinate and monitor the implementation of ECO activities and service all meetings of the Organization in line with the agreed documents and directives of the governing organs of ECO. The Secretariat Staff composed of the Secretary General, 3 deputy secretaries general, 6 directors, 3 assistant directors and other professionals and technical, administrative and support personnel. The total number of staff is 49. The agriculture sector has been dealt with mainly three staff members under the leadership of the Deputy Secretary General and the Directorate of Agriculture, Industry and Health.
Food security has been a long-standing and major goal of the ECO countries since the beginning of world food crisis in the mid 1970s and the World Food Summit-1996. Since that time sustainable agricultural development and enhanced self-sufficiency constitute an ultimate national objective in the ECO States. Despite the magnificent growth in agricultural production, especially for cereals (Over 88 million metric tons in 2001) together with the considerable improvement in infrastructure, distribution and social services in some countries, the ECO countries still far from being self sufficient in food production. Meanwhile they are net food importers. There was evidence that some improvement in domestic food output have taken place in these countries, especially in producing wheat, rice, barley, sugar cane, cotton, meat, milk and eggs.
While the incidence of poverty is not well known, evidence suggests the existence of poverty and food insecurity among some segments of the population and even in countries with relatively high income levels. Nomadic population with small herds, desert shepherds, landless labourers, families with small land holdings in rain fed areas and the unemployed urban population face occasional food security risks.
Although the average daily caloric supply per caput in the ECO member states was relatively high (2,700 kcal in 1994-1996), and declined to reach 2572 kcal in 1997-1999 (Lower than the developing countries level of 2680 kcal), there are significant variations among countries and within each country. An upper limit of 3490 kcal was reported in Turkey and a lowest level of 1800 kcal in Afghanistan) and within each country.
Agriculture sector has been major economic contributor to national economy of the ECO member countries. According to FAO estimates, it generates 23.4 percent of GDP employing 42 percent of the economically active population in the ECO region in 2000. The average annual growth in agricultural GDP reached 5.8 percent in 1999-2000. The industrial sector share to GDP in ECO region reached 30.4 percent in 2000 (A highest rate was 50 percent in Turkmenistan and the lowest was 1.9 percent in Uzbekistan), with an average annual growth equals 10 percent in 1999-2000. However, there are variations among the countries within the region. While as high as 39.4 percent of the Kyrgyzstan’s GDP comes from the agriculture and forestry sector, only 9.2 percent of the Kazakhstan’s GDP is generated by agriculture and forestry sector. Although there are variations in contribution of agricultural sector in the national economy in the ECO member countries, these variations are likely to get reduced in near future as nearly half of the region’s population lives in urban areas and role of agriculture in the rural areas need to be more efficient and productive to meet increasing urban demand. However, the relatively low level of only 26 percent land being cultivated in 2000 as compared to 49 percent potential cultivable area indicates the prospects for increasing agricultural production through both intensification process and expansion of cultivated area.
Food imports in ECO region valued at US$ 9,588 million in 1999, and declined dramatically to reach US$ 5,939 million in 2000. Total exports (fob) in ECO countries reached US$ 69,643 million in 2000, meanwhile the reported total imports (CIF) was US$ 83,016 million with a net balance deficit of about US$ 13,373 million. In general, total exports of the ECO region cover about 83.9 percent of its total imports in 2000. Major farm products of the ECO member countries in 2001 were wheat, sugar cane, sugar beets, seed cotton, potatoes, tomatoes, and barley, rice, meat, milk, and milk products.
More recently (July 2002), RNEP prepared a draft framework for technical assistance for sustainable agriculture and food security in selected countries in ECO region. The Report discussed the Agricultural Sectors in the ECO Countries, the Common Issues and Developmental Priorities, the Major Priorities for Collective Actions, the Thematic Areas and Criteria for Programme/Project Identification, the Identified Project Ideas, and the Regional Project Priorities.
It was found that, the common issues and challenges facing the ECO Member Countries with special reference to the Central Asian Countries include: the need for an overall strategic framework for agricultural development; the problem of over-lapping and contradictions in the management of the agricultural sector; inadequate policies and programmes for achieving sustainable food security and poverty eradication; inefficient water resources management; pollution and environmental issues; dominance of cotton/grain production in the cropping pattern; livestock development; land distribution and property rights; market distortions; inadequate marketing facilities and rural finance; under-utilized agro-biodiversity; and insufficient assessment of the implications of the accession to WTO.
Many of the above mentioned obstacles could be undertaken within the framework of a “Regional Programme for Food Security in the member countries of the ECO”. However, the formulation of an agricultural development programme for the ECO Countries should take into consideration the country’s technological and socio-economic conditions and its surrounding environment. For example, the Central Asian Countries are currently pursuing macro-economic and sector reform measures. Most of these countries are pursuing long term strategic planning for economic and sector development. Harmonization of the strategic planning techniques, methodology, data base and indicators are important for future cooperation and possible economic integration among the countries of the sub-region.
The major priority areas for collective actions for ECO Member Countries seem to be: (1) Sustainable food security at the national and household levels; (2) Management of natural resources with special reference to water management, efficient utilization, and pollution; (3) Enhancing national technical and institutional capabilities in the area of policy design, analysis and long term strategic planning under the new market oriented system; (4) Improve marketing and agro-processing facilities including market information and early warning systems; (5) Harmonization of agricultural and trade policies among the ECO Member Countries to enhance the sub-region’s food security and agricultural intra-regional trade; (6) Enhancing crop and livestock production, productivity and intensification; (7) Development of rangelands and animal feed production; (8) Improvement of the plant protection and animal health quarantines and facilities/institutions; (9) Improving fisheries and aquaculture sectors; (10) Biodiversity and Forestry development; and (11) The accession to the WTO and its implications for internal policy reform. In addition, the following Priorities are also crucial to some countries: (1) Diversification of farm production and technology transfer at the farm levels; (2) Improving market oriented rural finance system and institutions; (3) with special reference to micro-lending schemes; (4) Improving land distribution and property rights regulations and implementation; and (5) Development of the livestock and poultry sectors; (6) Human development and capacity building for farmers, extension specialists, civil societies practitioners, and policy analysts; (7) Strengthening the role of women in sustainable rural and agricultural development; and (8) Enhancing off-farm income generation schemes.
b. Project Justification
As a follow up to the World Food Summit, and particularly the Declaration on World Food Security and the Plan of Action, FAO provided assistance to several countries including member countries of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), in the preparation of the national Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS). The SPFS is already operational in Pakistan and is under formulation in three other ECO countries. The national food security strategies elaborated as a follow up to the World Food Summit emphasised the need to improve land fertility, increase irrigation efficiency, raise crop and livestock productivity, streamline market and price policies for agricultural inputs and outputs, strengthen research and extension and rationalise the credit system in support of market-oriented agriculture. In order to make agriculture more efficient and to provide a better environment for regional food security, policy and institutional reforms are essential. Early results obtained from the implementation of those Programmes in the ECO Region, increasingly pointed to the real need to establish measures at the regional level, essentially to complement and underpin sustainability of the achievements of the food security and agricultural development at national levels. In general ECO countries have good potential to further develop their agriculture and enhance their food security.
The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) has invited the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to participate in a joint programme identification mission to selected ECO Countries. The FAO collaboration stems from the importance it gives to the role of regional economic groupings in supporting national efforts for the achievement of sustainable food security objectives as indicated in the 1996 World Food Summit (WFS) Declaration. This role was stressed during the WFS: five years later held in Rome, 10-13 June 2002 where specific Side-Events were held to discuss regional food security strategies for regional economic groupings. A specific Side-Event Session was devoted to discuss a draft Regional Strategy for Agricultural Development and Food Security for ECO Member Countries.
The First ECO Ministerial Meeting on Agriculture was held in Islamabad -Pakistan on 23-25 July 2002. The Meeting was attended by the Ministers of Agriculture of Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan, Islamic Republic of Iran, Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Republic of Tajikistan and Republic of Turkey and delegations of Republic of Azerbaijan, Republic of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Turkmenistan and Republic of Uzbekistan. The meeting requested the ECO Secretariat, in coordination with the Member States to finalize the formulation of a regional agricultural development and food security strategy in line with the national strategies/plans of the Member States. Moreover, the meeting appreciated FAO’s envisaged support to the Secretariat in the formulation of a Regional Programme for Food Security and Agricultural Development for ECO Member States which has recently been initiated by ECO/FAO, based on the decision taken in the Side-Event on “Regional Food Security at Work”. The meeting requested the ECO Secretariat to pursue this initiative with FAO and the Regional Financial Institutions to spearhead the process. In that regard, ECO Secretariat requested FAO technical assistance for the preparation of a Regional Programme for Food Security including projects for donors’ consideration. Such programme/projects will be discussed in a meeting to be held in one of the financing institutes with the participation of the ECO and FAO as well as other donors/financing institutes.
A Regional Programme for Food Security is highly needed to increase food availability in the ECO region and in the countries themselves. Such a Programme would be directed to: enhancing national food security programmes and actions of ECO member countries, for increased agricultural production and productivity; enhancing trade of agricultural commodities among ECO member states, and between the region and the rest of the world, and harmonize food security policies including through the strengthening of the institutional structures and set up.
ECO is convinced about the relevance, appropriateness and long term value of the RPFS, and has made efforts to initiate its formulation, firstly by ensuring the member states’ interest (which was clearly obtained during the First Ministerial Meeting on Agriculture), and secondly by securing the interests of donor and funding agencies in providing support and assistance in its envisaged implementation. ECO has made approaches to Donor Agencies such as the Islamic Development Bank (IDB) for support to implement the RPFS. These Agencies have expressed initial interest in the RPFS, and requested that the necessary proposals be prepared to provide the basis for establishing Agreements in providing their support.
The activities envisaged to be carried out in preparing the proposals are interdisciplinary in nature, with a wide variation in requirements, particularly human and financial resources for their effective implementation. Logical frameworks in formats of Donors would have to be carefully prepared for, planning, implementation and evaluation, and more importantly to facilitate negotiation and mobilization of resources for their implementation. In order to ensure ownership, participation and commitment to the undertakings, the ECO Secretariat and Member States would have to be involved in their preparation.
However, currently, neither ECO as the lead Unit in the implementation of the RPFS, nor most of the Member States possess adequate technical and financial resources and mechanisms necessary to prepare the required frameworks for donor consideration, and ensure their implementation and monitoring. For this reason the Secretary General of ECO visited FAO Headquarters in Rome in June 2002 and sought assistance to enhance such capacities in ECO and Member States, firstly, to prepare project proposals for ECO to present to donors, especially the IDB for funding, and secondly, to enable the ECO Secretariat and Member States to manage and monitor the process of implementing the RPFS.
It was in this context, further to the commitment taken as per the World Food Summit Plan of Action, and with the collaboration of a number of regional Inter-Governmental Organizations (IGOs), that technical assistance is considered to formulate Regional/Sub-regional Programmes for Food security (RPFS) for ECO Region, based on the National Strategies for Agricultural Development in their respective member countries. The Council of Ministers of Agriculture of ECO Member States gave their political approval for the formulation/preparation of the Programme.
II. OBJECTIVE OF THE ASSISTANCE
The overall objective of this project is to assist the ECO Secretariat and member countries in the formulation of a Regional Programme for Food Security (RPFS), including regional, sub-regional and national components, as well as in the strengthening of capacities at the ECO Secretariat and in member states to ensure a successful and sustainable implementation and monitoring of the RPFS.
The immediate project objectives are:
1. to strengthen the capacities of the ECO Secretariat and ECO Member States’ focal points in situation analysis, formulation, appraisal, monitoring and evaluation of programmes and projects, particularly activities related to the formulation of the RFPS and its sub-programmes and projects;.
2. to assist the ECO Secretariat, with the full involvement of national focal points, in updating and finalizing the Regional Strategy for Agricultural Development and Food Security in the ECO member countries and the Sub-Regional Strategy for Central Asian Countries (including Azerbaijan), based on the draft documents prepared and presented at the special Side Event during the WFS-fyl in June 2002.
3. to assist the ECO Secretariat and member countries in the formulation of the RPFS, including preparation of bankable development projects at country, sub-regional and regional levels ready for submission for donor funding.
III. PROJECT OUTPUTS
The major Outputs expected under this assistance are:
(i) A strengthened capacity in the ECO Secretariat and focal points in member countries, in situation analysis, formulation, appraisal, monitoring and evaluation of programmes and projects.
(ii) A finalized and updated Regional Strategy for Agricultural Development and Food Security for the ECO Member Countries, and A Sub-Regional Strategy for Central Asian Countries (including Azerbaijan).
(iii) A Regional Programme for Food Security (RPFS) for the ECO region, including a set of priority bankable projects (at country, sub-regional and regional levels) ready for submission for donor funding.
IV. WORK PLAN
The priorities which are to be addressed in operationalizing the RPFS are the following:
Updating and finalization of the draft Regional and Sub-regional Strategies for Agricultural Development and Food Security; formulation of a Regional Programme for Food Security, including preparation of selected priority bankable projects to spearhead donor consideration. Considering the importance and need for sustainability of the achievements of the project, these priorities are to be addressed in a participatory way, i.e., with the direct involvement of the ECO Secretariat and the Member States. The project Work Plan therefore will start first with the upgrading of skills of the expertise in ECO Secretariat and Member States who will be directly involved in addressing the priorities of the RPFS, stated above.
The work plan, as presented in Table 1, will make provision for the following activities:
A strengthened capacity in the ECO Secretariat and the focal points in member countries in situation analysis and in programme/project formulation, appraisal, monitoring and evaluation.
An Up-dated Regional Strategy for Agricultural Development and Food Security in the ECO Region and the Central Asian Sub-Region.
A Regional Programme for Food Security (RPFS) for the ECO region, including a set of priority bankable projects (at country, sub-regional and regional levels) ready for submission for donor funding.
(a) Review the priority areas and themes identified by the revised Regional Strategy for Agricultural Development and Food Security in the ECO Region and by the revised Sub-regional strategy in the Central Asia Sub-Region. Review on-going activities implemented by national and donor-funded programmes in the Region, which are of policy and programming nature in Food Security, agricultural production and trade, and identify those that will have implications for the implementation of the activities proposed in the ECO-RPFS
(b) Prepare a Regional Programme for Food Security (RPFS) with special reference to the activities that are to be carried out at regional level and prioritize the areas of action, (sections/categories and actions under each), taking into consideration those that are time specific.
(c) Prepare Terms of Reference, recruit and field national consultants and TCDC Expert to carry out in-country Review of Reports, policies, strategies and programmes of member states in the region. Use will be made of the available information based on the joint FAO/ECO mission to selected Central Asian Countries. Other countries will be visited and work to be initiated by national experts.
(d) Assemble secondary information and other data on comparative advantages of member states to provide supplies of selected agricultural commodities in the Region. Review also Assessment of the global situation and outlook for agricultural commodities prevalent in the region. Analyze information and data, and prepare a Report on the findings.
(e) From the above Reports and other relevant information on priorities of regional/sub-regional dimensions, identify priority areas for investment and development at national and regional levels, with the focus on promotion of agricultural trade and production;
(f) Prepare brief on each priority area, indicating among others the relevance to food security, scope, targets, approaches, benefits and contribution to trade or agricultural production in general, and food security in particular, basic requirements, and possible involvement of development partners;
(g) Based on the identified priority areas prepare specific Terms of References for identification or formulation mission for bankable projects directed at promotion of agricultural trade and production within the Region/Sub-region, and between the Region and the rest of the world;
(h) Recruit and field identification and formulation mission: prepare work plan of Mission; carry out review of the reports on assessment of policies, strategies and programmes of member states in the Region; comparative advantages of member states to provide supplies of selected agricultural commodities; briefs on priority areas identified for support under the RPFS; undertake field visits as may be necessary to generate further data and information; identify and prepare proposals for development into projects and programmes for donor funding; carry out appraisal of proposals identified involving ECO and member countries (Focal Points), and consolidate them into a form of an Action Programme for submission to donors for further action, including mobilization of resources. Prepare and annex to the Programme, at least three or four undertakings (including elements and costs).
Table 1: PROPOSED WORK PLAN
* Technical support by RNEP for initiating, backstopping and coordinating the activities, reviewing and clearing reports.
V. CAPACITY BUILDING
The project is ultimately intended to enhance the capacities and preparedness of ECO and member states (Focal Points) to prepare and present bankable proposals to donors for funding to implement the RPFS. In order to ensure sustainability and ownership of this objective, and ensure effective follow up actions to this achievement, the capacities of ECO and member states (Focal Points) need to be built up in the activities involved. The project strategy therefore makes provision for such capacity building process, both in the ECO Secretariat and of the Focal Points in member countries. The trained personnel both in member states and ECO will be directly involved in carrying out activities mainly designed for identification, preparation and appraisal, monitoring and evaluation of proposals and undertakings, for donor consideration, and for managing the process of implementing the RPFS.
VI. INPUTS TO BE PROVIDED BY FAO
1. Personnel Services
International TCDC/TCCT Experts
- TCDC/TCCT Policy and Programming Expert to mainly contribute to the preparation of the Plan of Action, Guidelines, Procedures for implementation of the RPFS: 4 months in four missions (Annex 1)
- TCDC/TCCT Expert in Policy analysis for countries in transition, to assist in collation and co-ordination of information on policies (national and IGOs), global situation and outlook, comparative advantages of member states for supplies of selected commodities, identification of proposals for bankable projects and/or viable undertakings: 2 months in four missions (Annex 2)
- TCDC/TCCT Expert, Trainer in Project formulation, to assist in the assessment of the technical and institutional capacities of ECO Secretariat and focal points in member countries in the formulation and implementation of the RPFS and support the preparation of a training plan on project/programme identification, formulation, appraisal, monitoring and evaluation: 2 months in three missions (Annex 3)
- Ten national consultants (one per country, to work in tandem with the National Focal Points) in agricultural economics/policy analysis to support the collection of in-country information and identification of constraints for national and household food security, to be further taken into account in the design of the RSPF and related projects for its implementation: each one for 3 months (Annex 4)
- ESCP: four weeks in total, of which 2 weeks at HQ for the assessment of the trade situation and outlook for agricultural commodities of ECO member countries and two 1-week missions to assist in the preparatory and final technical workshops, for trade-related matters (Annex 5).
- TCAS: four weeks, of which two weeks in HQ and two missions of 1-week to participate in capacity building workshops, to contribute to the training planning and implementation (Annex 6).
- RNEP: six weeks (of which one week in FAO/Cairo) for agricultural policy review and advice, assessment of training needs and provision of training in policy analysis and planning, preparation of the RPFS document and Action Plan, etc (Annex 7)
- TCIE: eight weeks in total (of which two weeks in HQ and two 3-weeks missions) for formulation of key projects for donor funding (Annex 8)
FAO Supervisory Technical Services (STS)
- RNEP will provide Standard STS as well as coordinating functions of LTU, including one-week backstopping and coordinating mission (in conjunction with one of the planted ATS RNEP missions) and two one-week missions for the preparation, coordination of and participation in the technical meetings.
Support personnel (up to US$ 4,000)
- Russian-English interpretation support for the project training activities as well as for documents translation.
2. Official travel (US$ 15,000)
In-country travel of the national consultants and Focal points as well as regional travel of ECO technicians assigned to the project, in particular to participate (together with TCIE and RNEP) in the two project identification missions to selected ECO member states (the first mission in selected countries of Central Asian and Azerbaijan; the second mission in countries to be selected among Turkey, Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan, also depending on security clearance) (for up to US$ 10,000 – any additional cost will be borne by ECO).
3. General Operating Expenses (US$ 15,838)
Miscellaneous expenses related to the project implementation at the countries’ level (communication, paper, office sundries, etc.) as well as to the preparation of the project Terminal Statement. The cost for the preparation/duplication of training material is also covered under this line (for up to US$3,000).
4. Direct Operating Costs (US$21,350)
- 7 percent of the project expenditures.
5. Training – Workshops (US$ 38,800)
- Two Regional Capacity Building Workshops, of 1-week each, for training in project/programme identification, formulation, appraisal, monitoring and evaluation as well as policy analysis for 10 Country Focal Points (one from each country) and 3 technicians of ECO Secretariat. The first training workshop will be held in Tehran while the second one will be held in Kazakhstan, more focused on policy analysis issues and tools pertaining to food security in Central Asian countries. Both workshops will be supported by RNEP and TCAS. Estimated cost for participants’ attendance to the first workshop: US$6,036 (travel for 9 persons) + US$8,964 (US$166 DSA for 9 persons/6 days) = US$ 15,000 – Estimated cost for participants’ attendance to the second workshop: US$7,800 (travel for 12 persons) + US$10,800 (US$150 DSA for 12 persons/6 days) = US$18,600 – Total regional training travel: US$33,600.
- Two technical workshops, three days each (in Jeddah): 1) the First Preparatory/Inception Technical Workshop aims at promoting the discussion on the RPFS, the challenges facing the ECO member countries and their technical needs to implement this Programme. It will be attended by one technical officer from ECO Secretariat, FAO officers from RNEP, TCI, ESCP and the TCDC Expert in Policy Planning and Programming. Representatives from IDB as well as from other regional organizations or other potential donors will also attend at no cost for the project; 2) the Second Final Technical Workshop will discuss the result of the TCP project particularly the document on the RPFS components/project profiles. One technical officer from ECO Secretariat, two focal points from selected countries capable of presenting mission results, the TCDC Expert in Policy Planning and Programming and FAO staff from RNEP, TCIE, ESCP and the Team Leader. It will be attended by IDB technical staff as well as by representatives from other regional organizations or other potential donors at no cost for the project. The participation of other ECO representatives will be covered by ECO. The cost for the attendance of FAO staff and TCDC are covered under their respective travel account lines. Overall estimated cost to cover for the participation of ECO technician and national Focal Points: US$ 3124 (travel for 4 persons) + 2076 (DSA 4 persons/3 days) = US$5,200.
- In-house working sessions in ECO Secretariat imply no cost for the project (the cost for the attendance of FAO staff and consultants is covered under their respective travel account lines).
Technical reports, as identified in the Work plan, will be prepared by the TCDC Expert, Focal Points and national consultants in member countries at the end of each mission or activity. RNEP, in consultation with Secretariat and with other FAO Technical Services, as appropriate, will approve all reports. The TCDC Expert in Policy Planning and Programming will prepare a project report by consolidating the reports prepared by the other expertise. The Expert will also draft the terminal report of the project in accordance with FAO-TCP guidelines, for finalization by FAO and submission to the ECO Secretariat.
VIII. COUNTERPART CONTRIBUTION AND SUPPORTING ARRANGEMENTS
The ECO Secretariat will be the counterpart institution responsible for supporting project implementation.
ECO will designate a qualified officer to act as a regional coordinator of the project who will be the responsible for the overall coordination of the project activities during the whole project duration (Annex 9). ECO will also appoint two technicians/professionals responsible for ECO food security activities to fully participate in the project activities, including training. ECO will continue covering for the salary and other emoluments of the staff assigned to the project.
ECO will provide administrative and logistic support for the project experts, consultants and FAO staff during implementation of the project. In particular, providing Offices, secretarial staff, office materials and in-country transport for the project experts/staff while in Tehran, I.R. Iran.
Each of the ECO Member State will appoint a National Food Security Focal Point to serve as national coordinator for the implementation of the activities to be undertaken at the national level, to contribute to the preparation of the RPFS and to participate in the project training activities, as per project work plan. The releasing Government institutions will continue covering for the salary and other emoluments of the focal points assigned to the project.
It is expected that after the project, the National Focal Points will facilitate, in coordination with the ECO Secretariat and other relevant institutions, the implementation of the national components of the RPFS.
ECO will provide full support to the coordination and implementation of the RPFS, including set up of all necessary arrangements to ensure donors’ support to the different components of the Programme and facilitation of the work of ECO member countries for the implementation of eventual national components of the Programme.
PROJECT BUDGET (US$)
Organization: Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)
Project Title: Support to ECO for the Preparation of the Regional Programme for Food Security
Project Symbol: TCP/INT/2902 (F)
TERMS OF REFERENCE
INTERNATIONAL TCDC EXPERT IN POLICY AND PROGRAMME PLANNING
Under the overall supervision of the project Budget Holder and the technical supervision of the Policy Assistance Branch of the FAO Regional Office for the Near East (RNEP), in consultation with ECO department of Agriculture, Industry and Health, the International TCDC Expert will provide overall technical guidance in the implementation of the TCP project; preparation of the Plan of Actions, Guidelines and Procedures for implementation of the RPFS. Specifically, the TCDC Expert shall:
- be responsible to establish the Work Plan of the project.
- with the assistance of the other project expertise, and the collaboration of the ECO, update the available regional/sub-regional strategies; and prepare and establish a Plan of Actions to implement the RPFS.
- review the mechanisms of consultations collaboration and interaction between ECO Secretariat and all parties expected to be involved in the implementation of the RPFS, among them: Member States and Development Partners in the preparation and implementation of undertakings in development co-operation.
- In collaboration with ECO and other project experts, establish guidelines and procedures to manage the project cycles, and to facilitate effective interaction and collaboration between ECO Secretariat and all parties to be involved in the implementation of the RPFS.
- provide advice and assistance to the ECO Secretariat in the identification and establishment of Focal Points in Member States for liaison between ECO and the Member States in the implementation of the RPFS.
- co-ordinate the inputs in the formulation of key projects for submission to donors.
- provide assistance to the TCDC Experts in preparing the Programme of proposals for bankable projects or undertakings for submission to potential donors, particularly IDB.
- prepare quarterly project reports and assist RNEP in coordinating the preparation of periodic and final reports of members of the project Team.
- carry out missions and supervise training activities in collaboration with RNEP as needed.
- Prepare an end of assignment Report, and inputs for preparation of a Terminal Report of the project.
DURATION 4 Work Months
DUTY STATION Cairo, Egypt (2 weeks at RNE) Tehran, I. R. Iran (7 weeks) and visit to selected countries of ECO region (7 weeks), in 2 split missions
TERMS OF REFERENCE
TCDC EXPERT IN POLICY ANALYSIS WORK
Under the overall supervision of the project Budget Holder and the technical supervision of the Policy Assistance Branch of the Regional Office for the Near East (RNEP), the direct guidance of the International TCDC Policy Planning Expert, and with the collaboration of the ECO Secretariat, the TCDC Expert shall:
- Review the document(s) of the Regional Strategy, particularly the proposals contained in it (them) for activities, measures and investment plans to be addressed under the RPFS, at regional/sub-regional level.
- Review and analyse the Reports on reviews of policies, programmes and agricultural situation carried out by national consultants in all the ECO member countries.
- Assemble secondary information and other data on comparative advantages of member states to provide supplies of selected agricultural commodities in the sub region.
- Review also Assessment of the global situation and outlook for agricultural commodities prevalent in the sub region.
- Analyse the information and data, on above and prepare a Report on the analysis.
- From the above Reports and other relevant information on priorities of sub regional dimensions, identify priority areas for investment and development at national and regional levels, with the focus on promotion of agricultural trade and production.
- Prepare a brief on each priority area, indicating among others the direction and relevance to food security; the scope, targets, approaches, benefits and contribution to trade or agricultural production in general, and food security in particular. Indicate also, basic requirements such as inputs costs, and possible involvement of development partners in their implementation.
- liaise with the missions that will formulate selected saleable projects for submission to donors particularly the IDB, and obtain details of their outputs.
- using the above information support the consolidation of a document containing proposals for bankable projects or undertakings for submission to potential donors, particularly IsDB.
- Prepare a Report on the above assignment.
DURATION 2 months
DUTY STATION Cairo, Egypt (1 week at RNE), Tehran, I. R. Iran (4 weeks) and visit selected countries of ECO region (3 weeks in 2 missions)
TERMS OF REFERENCE
TCDC EXPERT IN TRAINING AND CAPACITY BUILDING
Under the overall supervision of the project Budget Holder and the technical supervision of the Policy Assistance Branch of the Regional Office for the Near East (RNEP), the direct guidance of the International TCDC Policy Planning Expert with the collaboration of the ECO Secretariat, the TCDC Experts shall:
- Review and analyze the Reports on reviews of policies, programmes and agricultural situation carried out by national consultants in all the ECO member countries.
- Undertake visits to selected countries in the ECO region to be familiarized with the national and regional institutional setup and staffing.
- Interview selected government officials and key informants to identify the current capacity levels and the needed training with focus on the implementation of the RPFS.
- Identify the training needs/capacity-building requirements to facilitate the implementation of the RPFS.
- Prepare a proposal for the project training programme for review and finalisation of TCAS and RNEP.
- Prepare a Report on the above assignment.
DURATION 2 Work Months
DUTY STATION Cairo, Egypt (1 week – RNEP/RNE), Tehran, I. R. Iran (4 weeks) and visit selected countries of ECO region (3 weeks)
TERMS OF REFERENCE
Ten National Consultants
(3 month each)
Under the overall supervision of the project Budget Holder and the technical supervision of the Policy Assistance Branch of the Regional Office for the Near East (RNEP), the direct guidance of the International TCDC Policy Planning Expert, with the collaboration of the ECO Secretariat and in close cooperation with their respective National Focal Points, the national consultants shall:
1. Assemble all materials related to government policies, legislation and programmes pertaining to agriculture sector with special emphasis on those having impact on food security.
2. Review background information related to the on-going food security programmes in the country (success and shortfall) so as to draw lessons to guide the implementation on future programmes.
3. Collect Secondary data and information on the competitiveness and comparative advantages to provide deliveries of selected agricultural commodities for his/her country.
4. Prepare a draft report detailing the policy, institutional, socio-economic and natural constraints impeding the agricultural sector from playing its vital role in the country’s economic development and the achievement of household and national food security.
5. Prepare a draft country report covering the above mentioned duties.
6. Finalize the draft report incorporating the comments received from the TCDT experts as well as from FAO and ECO.
Post graduate degree in agricultural economics or related fields, with a strong inclination to quantitative policy and institutional analysis. He/she should have a minimum five years of relevant experience in the field of agriculture policy review and analysis preferably in ECO region. The consultant should have excellent working knowledge of English with demonstrated drafting skills. He/she must be computer literate.
Duration: Three months each
Duty station: Respective countries
TERMS OF REFERENCE
ADVISORY TECHNICAL SERVICES (ATS)
Under the general co-ordination of RNEP, the Lead Technical Unit for the project, the ESCP officer will assess the trade situation and outlook for agricultural commodities and related policies in regard to the ECO sub region. Specifically he shall perform the following:
- Review the recent development in international trade including WTO and their implications on the countries in the region.
- Review and finalise the secondary information and other data prepared by the TCDC Policy Analyst on comparative advantages of member states to provide supplies of selected agricultural commodities in the sub region.
- Review and finalise the assessment of the trade situation and outlook for agricultural commodities prevalent in the sub region prepared by the TCDC Policy Analyst.
- Based on the above information and data prepare a Report on the analysis.
- Provide inputs to the finalisation of the RPFS and Action Plan for all trade-related issues/implications.
- Participate in the preparatory and final technical workshops to serve as resource person/facilitate discussions for international and regional trade-related aspects.
- Prepare a report after each mission.
Duration: Four weeks, of which two from FAO/HQ and two one-week missions during the preparatory and final technical workshops.
TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR FAO ADVISORY TECHNICAL SERVICES (ATS)
Policy Support Officer (TCAS)
Under the general co-ordination of RNEP, the Lead Technical Unit for the project, TCAS shall be responsible for carrying out training in Project/Programme identification formulation, appraisal, monitoring and evaluation to ECO staff and to Focal Points in member States, for the implementation of the RPFS. Specifically, TCAS officer in collaboration with the ECO Secretariat, and the TCDC Training Expert:
- Support the finalization of the updated strategy for agricultural development and food security in ECO.
- Review the training needs assessment prepared by the TCDC Training Expert, proposing corrective measures, as needed.
- Finalise the training programme in Project/Programme identification formulation, appraisal, monitoring and evaluation, liaison, planning, co-ordination and management of the implementation of the RPFS.
- Carry out the training.
- Prepare an Assignment Report.
Duration: Four weeks
Duty station: Two from FAO/HQ and two one week missions to Tehran and Kazakhstan.
TERMS OF REFERENCE
TCA/RNEP ADVISORY TECHNICAL SERVICES (ATS)
In addition to the provision of standard supervisory services to the project, the TCA/Policy Assistance Branch in the FAO Regional Office for the Near East, RNEP, will provide advisory services to:
- Support the preparation of Policy Framework for ECO Secretariat.
- Assist in agricultural policy review and provide technical policy advice for the preparation of the RPFS.
- Review and help in the preparation of the training programme document.
- Prepare and undertake training in Policy analysis including tools and issues pertaining to Central Asia and ECO members states.
- Prepare and conduct training related to ECO region natural resource utilization and water resource use and management.
- Assist TCIE in the identification of key project for donors’ support and contribute to their finalisation, as appropriate.
- Review and finalise the RSFS document and its action plan, based on inputs of all consultants/staff.
- Prepare mission reports.
- Finalise the project Terminal Statement.
Duration: 6 weeks
Duty station: Tehran (two weeks), Kazakhstan (one week), selected countries (two weeks) and Cairo (one week)
TERMS OF REFERENCE
FAO ADVISORY TECHNICAL SERVICES (ATS)
Under the general co-ordination of RNEP, the Lead Technical Unit for the project, TCI shall be responsible for two major tasks:
Review the constraints in the ECO region (both at regional and national levels) to investment in programmes and projects aiming at supporting food security; propose recommendations to overcome these constraints and promote investments in the region; identify areas / sectors for investment of common interest amongst countries of the ECO region and which could attract potential donors such as IDB. This work will, amongst other tasks require the review of existing documentation, including:
(i) Review of the document of the Regional Programme for Food Security (RPFS), for ECO, paying particular attention to priority areas for investment and development at national and regional levels;
(ii) Review of the reports of the TCDC Expert and ESC, particularly those relating to priorities of regional dimensions, priority areas for investment and development at national and regional levels, programmes and agricultural situation carried out by national consultants in all the ECO member countries; on comparative advantages of member states to provide supplies of selected agricultural commodities in the sub region.
(iii) Formulate key regional/sub regional projects (of technical assistance and capacity building nature) aiming at facilitating the implementation of national investment projects and the improvement of regional food security. These projects could deal with promoting agricultural trade amongst ECO countries and with other countries, with strengthening regional capacity in trade negotiations with major partners (WTO, EU, etc.); harmonizing food safety, veterinary, quality control and phytosanitory norms and procedures, exchanging data and information related to food security and investment programmes, etc.
TCI will be responsible for this work which will include the review and analysis of existing documentation (including the one produced by other experts recruited by this project), the preparation of specific TCI ToRs (based on this review) for a mission to be sent in the region to perform the above-mentioned two tasks; sending the mission, guiding and finalizing its work and report.
This task should be undertaken in full collaboration with ECO secretariat and with the other team members of this project (including the TCDC experts).
Duration: 2 months
Duty station: Tehran and selected countries (1.5 wm in 2 split), and FAO Headquarters, Rome (0.5wm)
TERMS OF REFERENCE
Regional Project Coordinator
Under the supervision of the ECO department of Agriculture, Industry and Health, and in close consultation with the Policy Assistance Branch of the FAO Regional Office for the Near East (RNEP), the designated regional project coordinator will assume the following responsibilities:
1. Liaise with the international TCDC experts, FAO officers and ECO Secretariat in all matters related to the project.
2. Liaise with ECO member countries for any inputs required for the proper implementation of the project, including for facilitating and ensuring the appointment of national food security focal points.
3. Contribute to the overall process for the preparation of the RPFS, Action Plan and Guidelines.
4. Ensure that the activities are implemented according to schedule.
5. Ensure that all necessary supplies and logistic supports are provided on time.
6. Provide any operational support needed to international consultants and FAO experts with a view to carry out programmed activities.
7. Perform any other activities assigned to him by the project leader.
Duration: 12 months
Duty station: Tehran
1. The achievement of the objectives set by the project shall be the joint responsibility of the Government and FAO.
2. As part of its contribution to the project, the Government shall agree to make available the requisite number of qualified national personnel and the buildings, training facilities, equipment, transport and other local services necessary for the implementation of the project.
3. The Government shall assign authority for the project within the country to a Government agency, which shall constitute the focal point for cooperation with FAO in the execution of the project, and which shall exercise the Government’s responsibility in this regard.
4. Project equipment, materials and supplies provided out of Technical Cooperation Programme funds shall normally become the property of the Government immediately upon their arrival in the country, unless otherwise specified in the agreement. The Government shall ensure that such equipment, materials and supplies are at all times available for use of the project and that adequate provision is made for their safe custody, maintenance and insurance. Vehicles and personal computers remain the property of FAO, unless otherwise specified in the agreement.
5. Subject to any security provisions in force, the Government shall furnish to FAO and to its personnel on the project, if any, such relevant reports, tapes, records and other data as may be required for the execution of the project.
6. The selection of FAO project personnel, of other persons performing services on behalf of FAO in connection with the project, and of trainees, shall be undertaken by FAO, after consultation with the Government. In the interest of rapid project implementation, the Government shall undertake to expedite to the maximum degree possible its procedures for the clearance of FAO personnel and other persons performing services on behalf of FAO and to dispense with, wherever possible, clearance for short-term FAO personnel.
7. The Government shall apply to FAO, its property, funds and assets, and to its staff, the provisions of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the Specialized Agencies. Except as otherwise agreed by the Government and FAO in the Project Agreement, the Government shall grant the same privileges and immunities contained in the Convention to all other persons performing services on behalf of FAO in connection with the execution of the project.
8. With a view to the rapid and efficient execution of the project, the Government shall grant to FAO, its staff, and to all other persons performing services on behalf of FAO, the necessary facilities including:
i) the prompt issuance, free of charge, of any visas or permits required;
ii) any permits necessary for the importation and, where appropriate, the subsequent exportation, of equipment, materials and supplies required for use in connection with the project and exemption from the payment of all customs duties or other levies or charges relating to such importation or exportation;
iii) exemption from the payment of any sales or other tax on local purchases of equipment, materials and supplies for use in connection with the project;
iv) payment of transport costs within the country, including handling, storage, insurance and all other related costs, with respect to equipment, materials or supplies for use in connection with the project;
v) the most favourable legal rate of exchange;
vi) assistance to FAO staff, to the extent possible, in obtaining suitable accommodation;
vii) any permits necessary for the importation of property belonging to and intended for the personal use of FAO staff or of other persons performing services on behalf of FAO, and for the subsequent exportation of such property;
viii) prompt customs clearance of the equipment, materials, supplies and property referred to in subparagraphs (ii) and (vii) above.
9. The Government shall deal with any claim which may be brought by third parties against FAO or its staff, or against any person performing services on behalf of FAO, and shall hold them harmless in respect of any claim or liability arising in connection with the project, unless the Government and FAO should agree that the claim or liability arises from gross negligence or wilful misconduct on the part of the individuals mentioned above.
10. The persons performing services on behalf of FAO, referred to in paragraphs 6 to 9, shall include any organization, firm or other entity, which FAO may designate to take part in the execution of the project.
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