Republic of KazakhstanKazakhstan
Official name: Republic of Kazakhstan 
Head of State: President H.E Mr.Nursultan Abishevich NAZARBAYEV 
National Day: 25th of October (Republic Day- 1990) 
Capital: Astana (since June 1998)  
Area: 2,724,900 sq. km 
Land boundaries: 12,012 km 
Border countries: China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846 km, Turkmenistan  379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km 
Coast line: None (landlocked) 
  (Note: Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea (1,015 km) and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km) ) 
Climate: Continental, very cold winters and hot summers, arid and semi-arid 
Natural resources: Major deposits of petroleum, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium 
Land use: Arable land:15%
  Meadows and pastures: 57%
  Forest and woodland: 4%
  Other: 24%
  Irrigated land: 23,080 sq Km 
Agricultural products: Grain, mostly spring wheat, cotton; wool, meat  
Population: 16.5 million (2011)  
Population growth rate: 1.4% (2011) 
Ethnic composition: Kazakhs47.00%
  Others: 7%
Religions: Muslim 50%
  Russian Orthodox40%
Languages: Kazakh official language spoken by over 50% of the population, Russian (language of inter-ethnic communication) spoken by four-fifth of population and used  in everyday business
Literacy: Total99.50%
Currency :  Tenge(KZT), introduced on 15 November 1993  
Exchange Rate :  146.62 (KZT / 1US$) Annual Average (2011) 
GDP : 188.050 million US$ (2011) 
GDP per capital : 11.357 US$ (2011) 
GDP growth rate : 7.0 % (2010) 
Inflation rate : 7.4 % (2011) 
Unemployment rate : 5.39% (2011) 
Total Import : 37056 million US $ (2011) 
Total Export : 87964 million US $ (2011) 
Foreign Direct Investment : 18429 million US $ (2009) 
Total External Debt  : n/a 
Natural Resources Oil and gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, silver, aluminium, uranium, potassium, cadmium, salt and construction materials
Agriculture Products: Grain (mostly spring wheat), cotton; wool, livestock 
Main Industries: Oil, coal, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, iron and steel, nonferrous metal, tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials 
Electricity: Capacity: 17,380,000 kW 
  Production: 86.5 billion kWh 
  Consumption per capita: 3,700 kWh  
Transportation: Railways:13,841 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines.
  Highways:87,873 km public roads.
  Waterways:4,002 km on the Syr  Dariya River and Ertis River, Ishim River, Ili River
  Ports: Aktau (Shevchenko), Atyrau (Gur'yev), Ust-Kamenogorsk, Semey (Semipalatinsk) 
  Air-strips: 352


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